Components

Checkboxes

Let users select one or more options by using the checkboxes component.

Which types of waste do you transport?

Select all that apply.
<div id="waste" class="govuk-form-group">
  <fieldset
    aria-describedby="waste-hint"
    class="govuk-fieldset"
  >
    <legend class="govuk-fieldset__legend">
      <h1 class="govuk-heading-l">
        Which types of waste do you transport?
      </h1>
    </legend>
    <span id="waste-hint" class="govuk-hint">
      Select all that apply.
    </span>
    <div class="govuk-checkboxes">
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="carcasses"
          name="waste"
          id="waste-checkbox-0"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
        />
        <label
          for="waste-checkbox-0"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          Waste from animal carcasses
        </label>
      </div>
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="mines"
          name="waste"
          id="waste-checkbox-1"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
        />
        <label
          for="waste-checkbox-1"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          Waste from mines or quarries
        </label>
      </div>
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="farm"
          name="waste"
          id="waste-checkbox-2"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
        />
        <label
          for="waste-checkbox-2"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          Farm or agricultural waste
        </label>
      </div>
    </div>
  </fieldset>
</div>
<Checkboxes
  label={
    <h1 className="govuk-heading-l">
      Which types of waste do you transport?
    </h1>
  }
  name="waste"
  options={[
    {
      value: "carcasses",
      label: "Waste from animal carcasses",
    },
    {
      value: "mines",
      label: "Waste from mines or quarries",
    },
    {
      value: "farm",
      label: "Farm or agricultural waste",
    },
  ]}
  hint="Select all that apply."
/>
Props
Name Type Default Description
id string - 'id' attribute to place on the base HTML element HTML id (If not specified then the name will be used)
classBlock string - Block name override in BEM style classes applied to all elements
classModifiers other - BEM style modifiers to apply to the base HTML element
className string - Extra classes to apply to the base HTML element
accept string -
alt string -
autoComplete string -
autoFocus boolean -
capture other -
checked boolean -
crossOrigin string -
disabled boolean -
form string -
formAction string -
formEncType string -
formMethod string -
formNoValidate boolean -
formTarget string -
height other -
list string -
max other -
maxLength number -
min other -
minLength number -
multiple boolean -
name string -
pattern string -
placeholder string -
readOnly boolean -
required boolean -
size number -
src string -
step other -
type string -
value other -
width other -
onChange function -
defaultChecked boolean -
defaultValue other -
suppressContentEditableWarning boolean -
suppressHydrationWarning boolean -
accessKey string -
contentEditable other -
contextMenu string -
dir string -
draggable other -
hidden boolean -
lang string -
slot string -
spellCheck other -
style other -
tabIndex number -
title string -
translate enum -
radioGroup string -
role string -
about string -
datatype string -
inlist other -
prefix string -
property string -
resource string -
typeof string -
vocab string -
autoCapitalize string -
autoCorrect string -
autoSave string -
color string -
itemProp string -
itemScope boolean -
itemType string -
itemID string -
itemRef string -
results number -
security string -
unselectable enum -
inputMode enum - Hints at the type of data that might be entered by the user while editing the element or its contents
is string - Specify that a standard HTML element should behave like a defined custom built-in element
aria-activedescendant string - Identifies the currently active element when DOM focus is on a composite widget, textbox, group, or application.
aria-atomic other - Indicates whether assistive technologies will present all, or only parts of, the changed region based on the change notifications defined by the aria-relevant attribute.
aria-autocomplete enum - Indicates whether inputting text could trigger display of one or more predictions of the user's intended value for an input and specifies how predictions would be presented if they are made.
aria-busy other - Indicates an element is being modified and that assistive technologies MAY want to wait until the modifications are complete before exposing them to the user.
aria-checked other - Indicates the current "checked" state of checkboxes, radio buttons, and other widgets.
aria-colcount number - Defines the total number of columns in a table, grid, or treegrid.
aria-colindex number - Defines an element's column index or position with respect to the total number of columns within a table, grid, or treegrid.
aria-colspan number - Defines the number of columns spanned by a cell or gridcell within a table, grid, or treegrid.
aria-controls string - Identifies the element (or elements) whose contents or presence are controlled by the current element.
aria-current other - Indicates the element that represents the current item within a container or set of related elements.
aria-describedby string - Identifies the element (or elements) that describes the object.
aria-details string - Identifies the element that provides a detailed, extended description for the object.
aria-disabled other - Indicates that the element is perceivable but disabled, so it is not editable or otherwise operable.
aria-dropeffect enum - Indicates what functions can be performed when a dragged object is released on the drop target.
aria-errormessage string - Identifies the element that provides an error message for the object.
aria-expanded other - Indicates whether the element, or another grouping element it controls, is currently expanded or collapsed.
aria-flowto string - Identifies the next element (or elements) in an alternate reading order of content which, at the user's discretion, allows assistive technology to override the general default of reading in document source order.
aria-grabbed other - Indicates an element's "grabbed" state in a drag-and-drop operation.
aria-haspopup other - Indicates the availability and type of interactive popup element, such as menu or dialog, that can be triggered by an element.
aria-hidden other - Indicates whether the element is exposed to an accessibility API.
aria-invalid other - Indicates the entered value does not conform to the format expected by the application.
aria-keyshortcuts string - Indicates keyboard shortcuts that an author has implemented to activate or give focus to an element.
aria-label string - Defines a string value that labels the current element.
aria-labelledby string - Identifies the element (or elements) that labels the current element.
aria-level number - Defines the hierarchical level of an element within a structure.
aria-live enum - Indicates that an element will be updated, and describes the types of updates the user agents, assistive technologies, and user can expect from the live region.
aria-modal other - Indicates whether an element is modal when displayed.
aria-multiline other - Indicates whether a text box accepts multiple lines of input or only a single line.
aria-multiselectable other - Indicates that the user may select more than one item from the current selectable descendants.
aria-orientation enum - Indicates whether the element's orientation is horizontal, vertical, or unknown/ambiguous.
aria-owns string - Identifies an element (or elements) in order to define a visual, functional, or contextual parent/child relationship between DOM elements where the DOM hierarchy cannot be used to represent the relationship.
aria-placeholder string - Defines a short hint (a word or short phrase) intended to aid the user with data entry when the control has no value. A hint could be a sample value or a brief description of the expected format.
aria-posinset number - Defines an element's number or position in the current set of listitems or treeitems. Not required if all elements in the set are present in the DOM.
aria-pressed other - Indicates the current "pressed" state of toggle buttons.
aria-readonly other - Indicates that the element is not editable, but is otherwise operable.
aria-relevant enum - Indicates what notifications the user agent will trigger when the accessibility tree within a live region is modified.
aria-required other - Indicates that user input is required on the element before a form may be submitted.
aria-roledescription string - Defines a human-readable, author-localized description for the role of an element.
aria-rowcount number - Defines the total number of rows in a table, grid, or treegrid.
aria-rowindex number - Defines an element's row index or position with respect to the total number of rows within a table, grid, or treegrid.
aria-rowspan number - Defines the number of rows spanned by a cell or gridcell within a table, grid, or treegrid.
aria-selected other - Indicates the current "selected" state of various widgets.
aria-setsize number - Defines the number of items in the current set of listitems or treeitems. Not required if all elements in the set are present in the DOM.
aria-sort enum - Indicates if items in a table or grid are sorted in ascending or descending order.
aria-valuemax number - Defines the maximum allowed value for a range widget.
aria-valuemin number - Defines the minimum allowed value for a range widget.
aria-valuenow number - Defines the current value for a range widget.
aria-valuetext string - Defines the human readable text alternative of aria-valuenow for a range widget.
dangerouslySetInnerHTML other -
onCopy function -
onCopyCapture function -
onCut function -
onCutCapture function -
onPaste function -
onPasteCapture function -
onCompositionEnd function -
onCompositionEndCapture function -
onCompositionStart function -
onCompositionStartCapture function -
onCompositionUpdate function -
onCompositionUpdateCapture function -
onFocus function -
onFocusCapture function -
onBlur function -
onBlurCapture function -
onChangeCapture function -
onBeforeInput function -
onBeforeInputCapture function -
onInput function -
onInputCapture function -
onReset function -
onResetCapture function -
onSubmit function -
onSubmitCapture function -
onInvalid function -
onInvalidCapture function -
onLoad function -
onLoadCapture function -
onError function -
onErrorCapture function -
onKeyDown function -
onKeyDownCapture function -
onKeyPress function -
onKeyPressCapture function -
onKeyUp function -
onKeyUpCapture function -
onAbort function -
onAbortCapture function -
onCanPlay function -
onCanPlayCapture function -
onCanPlayThrough function -
onCanPlayThroughCapture function -
onDurationChange function -
onDurationChangeCapture function -
onEmptied function -
onEmptiedCapture function -
onEncrypted function -
onEncryptedCapture function -
onEnded function -
onEndedCapture function -
onLoadedData function -
onLoadedDataCapture function -
onLoadedMetadata function -
onLoadedMetadataCapture function -
onLoadStart function -
onLoadStartCapture function -
onPause function -
onPauseCapture function -
onPlay function -
onPlayCapture function -
onPlaying function -
onPlayingCapture function -
onProgress function -
onProgressCapture function -
onRateChange function -
onRateChangeCapture function -
onSeeked function -
onSeekedCapture function -
onSeeking function -
onSeekingCapture function -
onStalled function -
onStalledCapture function -
onSuspend function -
onSuspendCapture function -
onTimeUpdate function -
onTimeUpdateCapture function -
onVolumeChange function -
onVolumeChangeCapture function -
onWaiting function -
onWaitingCapture function -
onAuxClick function -
onAuxClickCapture function -
onClick function -
onClickCapture function -
onContextMenu function -
onContextMenuCapture function -
onDoubleClick function -
onDoubleClickCapture function -
onDrag function -
onDragCapture function -
onDragEnd function -
onDragEndCapture function -
onDragEnter function -
onDragEnterCapture function -
onDragExit function -
onDragExitCapture function -
onDragLeave function -
onDragLeaveCapture function -
onDragOver function -
onDragOverCapture function -
onDragStart function -
onDragStartCapture function -
onDrop function -
onDropCapture function -
onMouseDown function -
onMouseDownCapture function -
onMouseEnter function -
onMouseLeave function -
onMouseMove function -
onMouseMoveCapture function -
onMouseOut function -
onMouseOutCapture function -
onMouseOver function -
onMouseOverCapture function -
onMouseUp function -
onMouseUpCapture function -
onSelect function -
onSelectCapture function -
onTouchCancel function -
onTouchCancelCapture function -
onTouchEnd function -
onTouchEndCapture function -
onTouchMove function -
onTouchMoveCapture function -
onTouchStart function -
onTouchStartCapture function -
onPointerDown function -
onPointerDownCapture function -
onPointerMove function -
onPointerMoveCapture function -
onPointerUp function -
onPointerUpCapture function -
onPointerCancel function -
onPointerCancelCapture function -
onPointerEnter function -
onPointerEnterCapture function -
onPointerLeave function -
onPointerLeaveCapture function -
onPointerOver function -
onPointerOverCapture function -
onPointerOut function -
onPointerOutCapture function -
onGotPointerCapture function -
onGotPointerCaptureCapture function -
onLostPointerCapture function -
onLostPointerCaptureCapture function -
onScroll function -
onScrollCapture function -
onWheel function -
onWheelCapture function -
onAnimationStart function -
onAnimationStartCapture function -
onAnimationEnd function -
onAnimationEndCapture function -
onAnimationIteration function -
onAnimationIterationCapture function -
onTransitionEnd function -
onTransitionEndCapture function -
error string - Error message
hint string - Hint
label other - REQUIRED. Label
options other - REQUIRED. List of options to select from

When to use this component

Use the checkboxes component when you need to help users:

  • select multiple options from a list
  • toggle a single option on or off

When not to use this component

Do not use the checkboxes component if users can only choose one option from a selection. In this case, use the radios component.

How it works

Checkboxes are grouped together in a <fieldset> with a <legend> that describes them, as shown in the examples on this page. This is usually a question, like ‘How would you like to be contacted?’.

If you are asking just one question per page as recommended, you can set the contents of the <legend> as the page heading. This is good practice as it means that users of screen readers will only hear the contents once.

Read more about why and how to set legends as headings.

Always position checkboxes to the left of their labels. This makes them easier to find, especially for users of screen magnifiers.

Unlike with radios, users can select multiple options from a list of checkboxes. Do not assume that users will know how many options they can select based on the visual difference between radios and checkboxes alone.

If needed, add a hint explaining this, for example, ‘Select all that apply’.

Do not pre-select checkbox options as this makes it more likely that users will:

  • not realise they’ve missed a question
  • submit the wrong answer

Order checkbox options alphabetically by default.

In some cases, it can be helpful to order them from most-to-least common options. For example, you could order options for ‘What is your nationality?’ based on population size.

Group checkboxes together in a <fieldset> with a <legend> that describes them, as shown in the examples on this page. This is usually a question, like ‘How would you like to be contacted?’.

If you’re asking one question on the page

If you’re asking just one question per page as recommended, you can set the contents of the <legend> as the page heading. This is good practice as it means that users of screen readers will only hear the contents once.

Read more about why and how to set legends as headings.

Which types of waste do you transport?

Select all that apply.
<div id="waste" class="govuk-form-group">
  <fieldset
    aria-describedby="waste-hint"
    class="govuk-fieldset"
  >
    <legend class="govuk-fieldset__legend">
      <h1 class="govuk-heading-l">
        Which types of waste do you transport?
      </h1>
    </legend>
    <span id="waste-hint" class="govuk-hint">
      Select all that apply.
    </span>
    <div class="govuk-checkboxes">
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="carcasses"
          name="waste"
          id="waste-checkbox-0"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
        />
        <label
          for="waste-checkbox-0"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          Waste from animal carcasses
        </label>
      </div>
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="mines"
          name="waste"
          id="waste-checkbox-1"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
        />
        <label
          for="waste-checkbox-1"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          Waste from mines or quarries
        </label>
      </div>
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="farm"
          name="waste"
          id="waste-checkbox-2"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
        />
        <label
          for="waste-checkbox-2"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          Farm or agricultural waste
        </label>
      </div>
    </div>
  </fieldset>
</div>
<Checkboxes
  label={
    <h1 className="govuk-heading-l">
      Which types of waste do you transport?
    </h1>
  }
  name="waste"
  options={[
    {
      value: "carcasses",
      label: "Waste from animal carcasses",
    },
    {
      value: "mines",
      label: "Waste from mines or quarries",
    },
    {
      value: "farm",
      label: "Farm or agricultural waste",
    },
  ]}
  hint="Select all that apply."
/>

If you’re asking more than one question on the page

If you’re asking more than one question on the page, do not set the contents of the <legend> as the page heading. Read more about asking multiple questions on question pages.

Which types of waste do you transport?Select all that apply.
<div id="waste" class="govuk-form-group">
  <fieldset
    aria-describedby="waste-hint"
    class="govuk-fieldset"
  >
    <legend class="govuk-fieldset__legend">
      Which types of waste do you transport?
    </legend>
    <span id="waste-hint" class="govuk-hint">
      Select all that apply.
    </span>
    <div class="govuk-checkboxes">
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="carcasses"
          name="waste"
          id="waste-checkbox-0"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
        />
        <label
          for="waste-checkbox-0"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          Waste from animal carcasses
        </label>
      </div>
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="mines"
          name="waste"
          id="waste-checkbox-1"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
        />
        <label
          for="waste-checkbox-1"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          Waste from mines or quarries
        </label>
      </div>
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="farm"
          name="waste"
          id="waste-checkbox-2"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
        />
        <label
          for="waste-checkbox-2"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          Farm or agricultural waste
        </label>
      </div>
    </div>
  </fieldset>
</div>
<Checkboxes
  label="Which types of waste do you transport?"
  name="waste"
  options={[
    {
      value: "carcasses",
      label: "Waste from animal carcasses",
    },
    {
      value: "mines",
      label: "Waste from mines or quarries",
    },
    {
      value: "farm",
      label: "Farm or agricultural waste",
    },
  ]}
  hint="Select all that apply."
/>

Checkbox items with hints

You can add hints to checkbox items to provide additional information about the options.

What is your nationality?

If you have dual nationality, select all options that are relevant to you.
including English, Scottish, Welsh and Northern Irish
<div id="nationality" class="govuk-form-group">
  <fieldset
    aria-describedby="nationality-hint"
    class="govuk-fieldset"
  >
    <legend class="govuk-fieldset__legend">
      <h1 class="govuk-heading-l">
        What is your nationality?
      </h1>
    </legend>
    <span id="nationality-hint" class="govuk-hint">
      If you have dual nationality, select all options
      that are relevant to you.
    </span>
    <div class="govuk-checkboxes">
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="british"
          name="nationality"
          id="nationality-checkbox-0"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
        />
        <label
          for="nationality-checkbox-0"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          British
        </label>
        <span
          id="nationality-checkbox-0-hint"
          class="govuk-hint govuk-checkboxes__hint"
        >
          including English, Scottish, Welsh and
          Northern Irish
        </span>
      </div>
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="irish"
          name="nationality"
          id="nationality-checkbox-1"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
        />
        <label
          for="nationality-checkbox-1"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          Irish
        </label>
      </div>
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="other"
          name="nationality"
          id="nationality-checkbox-2"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
        />
        <label
          for="nationality-checkbox-2"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          Citizen of another country
        </label>
      </div>
    </div>
  </fieldset>
</div>
<Checkboxes
  label={
    <h1 className="govuk-heading-l">
      What is your nationality?
    </h1>
  }
  name="nationality"
  options={[
    {
      value: "british",
      label: "British",
      hint:
        "including English, Scottish, Welsh and Northern Irish",
    },
    {
      value: "irish",
      label: "Irish",
    },
    {
      value: "other",
      label: "Citizen of another country",
    },
  ]}
  hint="If you have dual nationality, select all options that are relevant to you."
/>

Add an option for ‘none’

IMPLEMENT ME!

When ‘none’ would be a valid answer, give users the option to check a box to say none of the other options apply to them — without this option, users would have to leave all of the boxes unchecked. Giving users this option also makes sure they do not skip the question by accident.

Remember to start by asking one question per page. You might be able to remove the need for a ‘none’ option by asking the user a better question or filtering them out with a ‘filter question’ beforehand. The GOV.UK Service Manual has guidance on designing good questions.

Show the ‘none’ option last. Separate it from the other options using a divider. The text is usually the word ‘or’.

Write a label that repeats the key part of the question.

For example, for the question ‘Will you be travelling to any of these countries?’, say ‘No, I will not be travelling to any of these countries.’

To enable some JavaScript that unchecks all other checkboxes when the user clicks ‘None’, add the exclusive behaviour to the ‘none’ checkbox.

Will you be travelling to any of these countries?

Select all countries that apply
or
<div id="contact" class="govuk-form-group">
  <fieldset
    aria-describedby="contact-hint"
    class="govuk-fieldset"
  >
    <legend class="govuk-fieldset__legend">
      <h1 class="govuk-heading-l">
        Will you be travelling to any of these
        countries?
      </h1>
    </legend>
    <span id="contact-hint" class="govuk-hint">
      Select all countries that apply
    </span>
    <div class="govuk-checkboxes">
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="france"
          name="contact"
          id="contact-checkbox-0"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
        />
        <label
          for="contact-checkbox-0"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          France
        </label>
      </div>
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="portugal"
          name="contact"
          id="contact-checkbox-1"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
        />
        <label
          for="contact-checkbox-1"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          Portugal
        </label>
      </div>
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="spain"
          name="contact"
          id="contact-checkbox-2"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
        />
        <label
          for="contact-checkbox-2"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          Spain
        </label>
      </div>
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__divider">or</div>
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="none"
          name="contact"
          id="contact-checkbox-4"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
        />
        <label
          for="contact-checkbox-4"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          No, I will not be travelling to any of these
          countries
        </label>
      </div>
    </div>
  </fieldset>
</div>
<Checkboxes
  label={
    <h1 className="govuk-heading-l">
      Will you be travelling to any of these
      countries?
    </h1>
  }
  name="contact"
  options={[
    {
      value: "france",
      label: "France",
    },
    {
      value: "portugal",
      label: "Portugal",
    },
    {
      value: "spain",
      label: "Spain",
    },
    "or",
    {
      value: "none",
      label:
        "No, I will not be travelling to any of these countries",
    },
  ]}
  hint="Select all countries that apply"
/>

If JavaScript is unavailable, and a user selects both the ‘none’ checkbox and another checkbox, display an error message.

Will you be travelling to any of these countries?

Error: Select countries you will be travelling to, or select “No, I will not be travelling to any of these countries”
or
<div
  id="contact"
  class="govuk-form-group govuk-form-group--error"
>
  <fieldset
    aria-describedby="contact-hint"
    class="govuk-fieldset"
  >
    <legend class="govuk-fieldset__legend">
      <h1 class="govuk-heading-l">
        Will you be travelling to any of these
        countries?
      </h1>
    </legend>
    <span
      id="contact-error"
      class="govuk-error-message"
    >
      <span class="govuk-visually-hidden">
        Error:
      </span>
      Select countries you will be travelling to, or
      select “No, I will not be travelling to any of
      these countries”
    </span>
    <div class="govuk-checkboxes">
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="france"
          name="contact"
          id="contact-checkbox-0"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
          checked=""
        />
        <label
          for="contact-checkbox-0"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          France
        </label>
      </div>
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="portugal"
          name="contact"
          id="contact-checkbox-1"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
        />
        <label
          for="contact-checkbox-1"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          Portugal
        </label>
      </div>
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="spain"
          name="contact"
          id="contact-checkbox-2"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
        />
        <label
          for="contact-checkbox-2"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          Spain
        </label>
      </div>
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__divider">or</div>
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="none"
          name="contact"
          id="contact-checkbox-4"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
          checked=""
        />
        <label
          for="contact-checkbox-4"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          No, I will not be travelling to any of these
          countries
        </label>
      </div>
    </div>
  </fieldset>
</div>
<Checkboxes
  error="Select countries you will be travelling to, or select “No, I will not be travelling to any of these countries”"
  label={
    <h1 className="govuk-heading-l">
      Will you be travelling to any of these
      countries?
    </h1>
  }
  name="contact"
  options={[
    {
      value: "france",
      label: "France",
      selected: true,
    },
    {
      value: "portugal",
      label: "Portugal",
    },
    {
      value: "spain",
      label: "Spain",
    },
    "or",
    {
      value: "none",
      label:
        "No, I will not be travelling to any of these countries",
      selected: true,
      exclusive: true,
    },
  ]}
/>

Conditionally revealing a related question

You can ask the user a related question when they select a particular checkbox, so they only see the question when it’s relevant to them.

This might make 2 related questions easier to answer by grouping them on the same page. For example, you could reveal a phone number input when the user selects the ‘Contact me by phone’ option.

How would you like to be contacted?

Select all options that are relevant to you.
<div id="contact" class="govuk-form-group">
  <fieldset
    aria-describedby="contact-hint"
    class="govuk-fieldset"
  >
    <legend class="govuk-fieldset__legend">
      <h1 class="govuk-heading-l">
        How would you like to be contacted?
      </h1>
    </legend>
    <span id="contact-hint" class="govuk-hint">
      Select all options that are relevant to you.
    </span>
    <div class="govuk-checkboxes">
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="email"
          name="contact"
          id="contact-checkbox-0"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
          data-aria-controls="conditional-contact-checkbox-0"
        />
        <label
          for="contact-checkbox-0"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          Email
        </label>
      </div>
      <div
        id="conditional-contact-checkbox-0"
        class="govuk-checkboxes__conditional govuk-checkboxes__conditional--hidden"
      >
        <div
          id="contact-by-email"
          class="govuk-form-group"
        >
          <label
            for="contact-by-email-input"
            class="govuk-label"
          >
            Email address
          </label>
          <input
            type="email"
            autocomplete="email"
            name="contact-by-email"
            spellcheck="false"
            id="contact-by-email-input"
            class="govuk-input"
          />
        </div>
      </div>
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="phone"
          name="contact"
          id="contact-checkbox-1"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
          data-aria-controls="conditional-contact-checkbox-1"
        />
        <label
          for="contact-checkbox-1"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          Phone
        </label>
      </div>
      <div
        id="conditional-contact-checkbox-1"
        class="govuk-checkboxes__conditional govuk-checkboxes__conditional--hidden"
      >
        <div
          id="contact-by-phone"
          class="govuk-form-group"
        >
          <label
            for="contact-by-phone-input"
            class="govuk-label"
          >
            Phone number
          </label>
          <input
            type="tel"
            autocomplete="tel"
            name="contact-by-phone"
            spellcheck="false"
            id="contact-by-phone-input"
            class="govuk-input"
          />
        </div>
      </div>
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="text message"
          name="contact"
          id="contact-checkbox-2"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
          data-aria-controls="conditional-contact-checkbox-2"
        />
        <label
          for="contact-checkbox-2"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          Text message
        </label>
      </div>
      <div
        id="conditional-contact-checkbox-2"
        class="govuk-checkboxes__conditional govuk-checkboxes__conditional--hidden"
      >
        <div
          id="contact-by-text"
          class="govuk-form-group"
        >
          <label
            for="contact-by-text-input"
            class="govuk-label"
          >
            Mobile phone number
          </label>
          <input
            type="tel"
            autocomplete="tel"
            name="contact-by-text"
            spellcheck="false"
            id="contact-by-text-input"
            class="govuk-input"
          />
        </div>
      </div>
    </div>
  </fieldset>
</div>
<Checkboxes
  label={
    <h1 className="govuk-heading-l">
      How would you like to be contacted?
    </h1>
  }
  name="contact"
  options={[
    {
      value: "email",
      label: "Email",
      conditional: (
        <TextInput
          autoComplete="email"
          className="govuk-!-width-one-third"
          id="contact-by-email"
          label="Email address"
          name="contact-by-email"
          spellCheck={false}
          type="email"
        />
      ),
    },
    {
      value: "phone",
      label: "Phone",
      conditional: (
        <TextInput
          autoComplete="tel"
          className="govuk-!-width-one-third"
          id="contact-by-phone"
          label="Phone number"
          name="contact-by-phone"
          spellCheck={false}
          type="tel"
        />
      ),
    },
    {
      value: "text message",
      label: "Text message",
      conditional: (
        <TextInput
          autoComplete="tel"
          className="govuk-!-width-one-third"
          id="contact-by-text"
          label="Mobile phone number"
          name="contact-by-text"
          spellCheck={false}
          type="tel"
        />
      ),
    },
  ]}
  hint="Select all options that are relevant to you."
/>

Keep it simple - if you need to add a lot of content, consider showing it on the next page in the process instead.

You should only conditionally reveal questions - do not show or hide anything that is not a question.

Known issues

Users are not always notified when a conditionally revealed question is shown or hidden. This fails WCAG 2.1 success criterion 4.1.2 Name, Role, Value.

However, we found that screen reader users did not have difficulty answering a conditionally revealed question - as long as it’s kept simple. It confused our test users when we conditionally revealed complicated questions to them.

We’ll keep looking for opportunities to learn more about how conditionally revealed questions should be used in services.

Smaller checkboxes

Use standard-sized checkboxes in nearly all cases. However, smaller versions work well on pages where it’s helpful to make them less visually prominent.

For example, on a page of search results, the primary user need is to see the results. Using smaller checkboxes lets users see and change search filters without distracting them from the main content.

Organisation

<div id="organisation" class="govuk-form-group">
  <fieldset
    aria-describedby="organisation-hint"
    class="govuk-fieldset"
  >
    <legend class="govuk-fieldset__legend">
      <h3>Organisation</h3>
    </legend>
    <div
      class="govuk-checkboxes govuk-checkboxes--small"
    >
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="hmrc"
          name="organisation"
          id="organisation-checkbox-0"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
        />
        <label
          for="organisation-checkbox-0"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          HM Revenue and Customs (HMRC)
        </label>
      </div>
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="employment-tribunal"
          name="organisation"
          id="organisation-checkbox-1"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
        />
        <label
          for="organisation-checkbox-1"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          Employment Tribunal
        </label>
      </div>
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="MoD"
          name="organisation"
          id="organisation-checkbox-2"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
        />
        <label
          for="organisation-checkbox-2"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          Ministry of Defence
        </label>
      </div>
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="DfT"
          name="organisation"
          id="organisation-checkbox-3"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
        />
        <label
          for="organisation-checkbox-3"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          Department for Transport
        </label>
      </div>
    </div>
  </fieldset>
</div>
<Checkboxes
  classModifiers="small"
  label={<h3>Organisation</h3>}
  name="organisation"
  options={[
    {
      value: "hmrc",
      label: "HM Revenue and Customs (HMRC)",
    },
    {
      value: "employment-tribunal",
      label: "Employment Tribunal",
    },
    {
      value: "MoD",
      label: "Ministry of Defence",
    },
    {
      value: "DfT",
      label: "Department for Transport",
    },
  ]}
/>

Small checkboxes can work well on information dense screens in services designed for repeat use, like caseworking systems.

In services like these, the risk that they will not be noticed is lower because users return to the screen multiple times.

Error messages

Error messages should be styled like this:

What is your nationality?

Select all that apply.Error: Select if you are British, Irish or a citizen of a different country
including English, Scottish, Welsh and Northern Irish
<div
  id="nationality"
  class="govuk-form-group govuk-form-group--error"
>
  <fieldset
    aria-describedby="nationality-hint"
    class="govuk-fieldset"
  >
    <legend class="govuk-fieldset__legend">
      <h1 class="govuk-heading-l">
        What is your nationality?
      </h1>
    </legend>
    <span id="nationality-hint" class="govuk-hint">
      Select all that apply.
    </span>
    <span
      id="nationality-error"
      class="govuk-error-message"
    >
      <span class="govuk-visually-hidden">
        Error:
      </span>
      Select if you are British, Irish or a citizen of
      a different country
    </span>
    <div class="govuk-checkboxes">
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="british"
          name="nationality"
          id="nationality-checkbox-0"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
        />
        <label
          for="nationality-checkbox-0"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          British
        </label>
        <span
          id="nationality-checkbox-0-hint"
          class="govuk-hint govuk-checkboxes__hint"
        >
          including English, Scottish, Welsh and
          Northern Irish
        </span>
      </div>
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="irish"
          name="nationality"
          id="nationality-checkbox-1"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
        />
        <label
          for="nationality-checkbox-1"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          Irish
        </label>
      </div>
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="other"
          name="nationality"
          id="nationality-checkbox-2"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
        />
        <label
          for="nationality-checkbox-2"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          Citizen of another country
        </label>
      </div>
    </div>
  </fieldset>
</div>
<Checkboxes
  label={
    <h1 className="govuk-heading-l">
      What is your nationality?
    </h1>
  }
  name="nationality"
  options={[
    {
      value: "british",
      label: "British",
      hint:
        "including English, Scottish, Welsh and Northern Irish",
    },
    {
      value: "irish",
      label: "Irish",
    },
    {
      value: "other",
      label: "Citizen of another country",
    },
  ]}
  hint="Select all that apply."
  error="Select if you are British, Irish or a citizen of a different country "
/>

Make sure errors follow the guidance in error message and have specific error messages for specific error states.

If nothing is selected and the question has options in it

Say ‘Select if [whatever it is] ’.

For example, ‘Select if you are British, Irish or a citizen of a different country’.

If nothing is selected and the question does not have options in it

Say ‘Select [whatever it is] ’.

For example, ‘Select your nationality or nationalities’.

If users check both a ‘none’ checkbox and another checkbox

Say ‘Select [option label text] or select “ [none of the above label text] ”’

For example, ‘Select countries you will be travelling to, or select “No, I will not be travelling to any of these countries”’