Components

Checkboxes

Let users select one or more options by using the checkboxes component.

Which types of waste do you transport?

Select all that apply.
<div id="waste" class="govuk-form-group">
  <fieldset
    aria-describedby="waste-hint"
    class="govuk-fieldset"
  >
    <legend class="govuk-fieldset__legend">
      <h1 class="govuk-heading-l">
        Which types of waste do you transport?
      </h1>
    </legend>
    <span id="waste-hint" class="govuk-hint">
      Select all that apply.
    </span>
    <div class="govuk-checkboxes">
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="carcasses"
          name="waste"
          id="waste-checkbox-0"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
        />
        <label
          for="waste-checkbox-0"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          Waste from animal carcasses
        </label>
      </div>
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="mines"
          name="waste"
          id="waste-checkbox-1"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
        />
        <label
          for="waste-checkbox-1"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          Waste from mines or quarries
        </label>
      </div>
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="farm"
          name="waste"
          id="waste-checkbox-2"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
        />
        <label
          for="waste-checkbox-2"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          Farm or agricultural waste
        </label>
      </div>
    </div>
  </fieldset>
</div>
<Checkboxes
  label={
    <h1 className="govuk-heading-l">
      Which types of waste do you transport?
    </h1>
  }
  name="waste"
  options={[
    {
      value: "carcasses",
      label: "Waste from animal carcasses",
    },
    {
      value: "mines",
      label: "Waste from mines or quarries",
    },
    {
      value: "farm",
      label: "Farm or agricultural waste",
    },
  ]}
  hint="Select all that apply."
/>
Props
Name Type Default Description
toString function Returns a string representation of a string. Returns a string representation of an object.
charAt function Returns the character at the specified index.
charCodeAt function Returns the Unicode value of the character at the specified location.
concat function Returns a string that contains the concatenation of two or more strings.
indexOf function Returns the position of the first occurrence of a substring.
lastIndexOf function Returns the last occurrence of a substring in the string.
localeCompare other Determines whether two strings are equivalent in the current locale. Determines whether two strings are equivalent in the current or specified locale.
match other Matches a string with a regular expression, and returns an array containing the results of that search. Matches a string or an object that supports being matched against, and returns an array containing the results of that search, or null if no matches are found.
replace other Replaces text in a string, using a regular expression or search string. Replaces first match with string or all matches with RegExp. Replaces text in a string, using an object that supports replacement within a string.
search other Finds the first substring match in a regular expression search.
slice function Returns a section of a string.
split other Split a string into substrings using the specified separator and return them as an array.
substring function Returns the substring at the specified location within a String object.
toLowerCase function Converts all the alphabetic characters in a string to lowercase.
toLocaleLowerCase function Converts all alphabetic characters to lowercase, taking into account the host environment's current locale.
toUpperCase function Converts all the alphabetic characters in a string to uppercase.
toLocaleUpperCase function Returns a string where all alphabetic characters have been converted to uppercase, taking into account the host environment's current locale.
trim function Removes the leading and trailing white space and line terminator characters from a string.
length number Returns the length of a String object.
substr function Gets a substring beginning at the specified location and having the specified length.
valueOf function Returns the primitive value of the specified object.
codePointAt function Returns a nonnegative integer Number less than 1114112 (0x110000) that is the code point value of the UTF-16 encoded code point starting at the string element at position pos in the String resulting from converting this object to a String. If there is no element at that position, the result is undefined. If a valid UTF-16 surrogate pair does not begin at pos, the result is the code unit at pos.
includes function Returns true if searchString appears as a substring of the result of converting this object to a String, at one or more positions that are greater than or equal to position; otherwise, returns false.
endsWith function Returns true if the sequence of elements of searchString converted to a String is the same as the corresponding elements of this object (converted to a String) starting at endPosition – length(this). Otherwise returns false.
normalize other Returns the String value result of normalizing the string into the normalization form named by form as specified in Unicode Standard Annex #15, Unicode Normalization Forms.
repeat function Returns a String value that is made from count copies appended together. If count is 0, the empty string is returned.
startsWith function Returns true if the sequence of elements of searchString converted to a String is the same as the corresponding elements of this object (converted to a String) starting at position. Otherwise returns false.
anchor function Returns an `<a>` HTML anchor element and sets the name attribute to the text value
big function Returns a `<big>` HTML element
blink function Returns a `<blink>` HTML element
bold function Returns a `<b>` HTML element
fixed function Returns a `<tt>` HTML element
fontcolor function Returns a `<font>` HTML element and sets the color attribute value
fontsize other Returns a `<font>` HTML element and sets the size attribute value
italics function Returns an `<i>` HTML element
link function Returns an `<a>` HTML element and sets the href attribute value
small function Returns a `<small>` HTML element
strike function Returns a `<strike>` HTML element
sub function Returns a `<sub>` HTML element
sup function Returns a `<sup>` HTML element
padStart function Pads the current string with a given string (possibly repeated) so that the resulting string reaches a given length. The padding is applied from the start (left) of the current string.
padEnd function Pads the current string with a given string (possibly repeated) so that the resulting string reaches a given length. The padding is applied from the end (right) of the current string.
trimEnd function Removes the trailing white space and line terminator characters from a string.
trimStart function Removes the leading white space and line terminator characters from a string.
trimLeft function Removes the leading white space and line terminator characters from a string.
trimRight function Removes the trailing white space and line terminator characters from a string.
matchAll function Matches a string with a regular expression, and returns an iterable of matches containing the results of that search.
replaceAll other Replace all instances of a substring in a string, using a regular expression or search string.
at function Returns a new String consisting of the single UTF-16 code unit located at the specified index.
__@iterator@50 function Iterator
conditional other
disabled boolean
exclusive boolean
hint string
label string
selected boolean
value string

When to use this component

Use the checkboxes component when you need to help users:

  • select multiple options from a list
  • toggle a single option on or off

When not to use this component

Do not use the checkboxes component if users can only choose one option from a selection. In this case, use the radios component.

How it works

Checkboxes are grouped together in a <fieldset> with a <legend> that describes them, as shown in the examples on this page. This is usually a question, like ‘How would you like to be contacted?’.

If you are asking just one question per page as recommended, you can set the contents of the <legend> as the page heading. This is good practice as it means that users of screen readers will only hear the contents once.

Read more about why and how to set legends as headings.

Always position checkboxes to the left of their labels. This makes them easier to find, especially for users of screen magnifiers.

Unlike with radios, users can select multiple options from a list of checkboxes. Do not assume that users will know how many options they can select based on the visual difference between radios and checkboxes alone.

If needed, add a hint explaining this, for example, ‘Select all that apply’.

Do not pre-select checkbox options as this makes it more likely that users will:

  • not realise they’ve missed a question
  • submit the wrong answer

Order checkbox options alphabetically by default.

In some cases, it can be helpful to order them from most-to-least common options. For example, you could order options for ‘What is your nationality?’ based on population size.

Group checkboxes together in a <fieldset> with a <legend> that describes them, as shown in the examples on this page. This is usually a question, like ‘How would you like to be contacted?’.

If you’re asking one question on the page

If you’re asking just one question per page as recommended, you can set the contents of the <legend> as the page heading. This is good practice as it means that users of screen readers will only hear the contents once.

Read more about why and how to set legends as headings.

Which types of waste do you transport?

Select all that apply.
<div id="waste" class="govuk-form-group">
  <fieldset
    aria-describedby="waste-hint"
    class="govuk-fieldset"
  >
    <legend class="govuk-fieldset__legend">
      <h1 class="govuk-heading-l">
        Which types of waste do you transport?
      </h1>
    </legend>
    <span id="waste-hint" class="govuk-hint">
      Select all that apply.
    </span>
    <div class="govuk-checkboxes">
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="carcasses"
          name="waste"
          id="waste-checkbox-0"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
        />
        <label
          for="waste-checkbox-0"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          Waste from animal carcasses
        </label>
      </div>
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="mines"
          name="waste"
          id="waste-checkbox-1"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
        />
        <label
          for="waste-checkbox-1"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          Waste from mines or quarries
        </label>
      </div>
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="farm"
          name="waste"
          id="waste-checkbox-2"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
        />
        <label
          for="waste-checkbox-2"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          Farm or agricultural waste
        </label>
      </div>
    </div>
  </fieldset>
</div>
<Checkboxes
  label={
    <h1 className="govuk-heading-l">
      Which types of waste do you transport?
    </h1>
  }
  name="waste"
  options={[
    {
      value: "carcasses",
      label: "Waste from animal carcasses",
    },
    {
      value: "mines",
      label: "Waste from mines or quarries",
    },
    {
      value: "farm",
      label: "Farm or agricultural waste",
    },
  ]}
  hint="Select all that apply."
/>

If you’re asking more than one question on the page

If you’re asking more than one question on the page, do not set the contents of the <legend> as the page heading. Read more about asking multiple questions on question pages.

Which types of waste do you transport?Select all that apply.
<div id="waste" class="govuk-form-group">
  <fieldset
    aria-describedby="waste-hint"
    class="govuk-fieldset"
  >
    <legend class="govuk-fieldset__legend">
      Which types of waste do you transport?
    </legend>
    <span id="waste-hint" class="govuk-hint">
      Select all that apply.
    </span>
    <div class="govuk-checkboxes">
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="carcasses"
          name="waste"
          id="waste-checkbox-0"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
        />
        <label
          for="waste-checkbox-0"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          Waste from animal carcasses
        </label>
      </div>
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="mines"
          name="waste"
          id="waste-checkbox-1"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
        />
        <label
          for="waste-checkbox-1"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          Waste from mines or quarries
        </label>
      </div>
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="farm"
          name="waste"
          id="waste-checkbox-2"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
        />
        <label
          for="waste-checkbox-2"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          Farm or agricultural waste
        </label>
      </div>
    </div>
  </fieldset>
</div>
<Checkboxes
  label="Which types of waste do you transport?"
  name="waste"
  options={[
    {
      value: "carcasses",
      label: "Waste from animal carcasses",
    },
    {
      value: "mines",
      label: "Waste from mines or quarries",
    },
    {
      value: "farm",
      label: "Farm or agricultural waste",
    },
  ]}
  hint="Select all that apply."
/>

Checkbox items with hints

You can add hints to checkbox items to provide additional information about the options.

What is your nationality?

If you have dual nationality, select all options that are relevant to you.
including English, Scottish, Welsh and Northern Irish
<div id="nationality" class="govuk-form-group">
  <fieldset
    aria-describedby="nationality-hint"
    class="govuk-fieldset"
  >
    <legend class="govuk-fieldset__legend">
      <h1 class="govuk-heading-l">
        What is your nationality?
      </h1>
    </legend>
    <span id="nationality-hint" class="govuk-hint">
      If you have dual nationality, select all options
      that are relevant to you.
    </span>
    <div class="govuk-checkboxes">
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="british"
          name="nationality"
          id="nationality-checkbox-0"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
        />
        <label
          for="nationality-checkbox-0"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          British
        </label>
        <span
          id="nationality-checkbox-0-hint"
          class="govuk-hint govuk-checkboxes__hint"
        >
          including English, Scottish, Welsh and
          Northern Irish
        </span>
      </div>
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="irish"
          name="nationality"
          id="nationality-checkbox-1"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
        />
        <label
          for="nationality-checkbox-1"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          Irish
        </label>
      </div>
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="other"
          name="nationality"
          id="nationality-checkbox-2"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
        />
        <label
          for="nationality-checkbox-2"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          Citizen of another country
        </label>
      </div>
    </div>
  </fieldset>
</div>
<Checkboxes
  label={
    <h1 className="govuk-heading-l">
      What is your nationality?
    </h1>
  }
  name="nationality"
  options={[
    {
      value: "british",
      label: "British",
      hint: "including English, Scottish, Welsh and Northern Irish",
    },
    {
      value: "irish",
      label: "Irish",
    },
    {
      value: "other",
      label: "Citizen of another country",
    },
  ]}
  hint="If you have dual nationality, select all options that are relevant to you."
/>

Add an option for ‘none’

IMPLEMENT ME!

When ‘none’ would be a valid answer, give users the option to check a box to say none of the other options apply to them — without this option, users would have to leave all of the boxes unchecked. Giving users this option also makes sure they do not skip the question by accident.

Remember to start by asking one question per page. You might be able to remove the need for a ‘none’ option by asking the user a better question or filtering them out with a ‘filter question’ beforehand. The GOV.UK Service Manual has guidance on designing good questions.

Show the ‘none’ option last. Separate it from the other options using a divider. The text is usually the word ‘or’.

Write a label that repeats the key part of the question.

For example, for the question ‘Will you be travelling to any of these countries?’, say ‘No, I will not be travelling to any of these countries.’

To enable some JavaScript that unchecks all other checkboxes when the user clicks ‘None’, add the exclusive behaviour to the ‘none’ checkbox.

Will you be travelling to any of these countries?

Select all countries that apply
or
<div id="contact" class="govuk-form-group">
  <fieldset
    aria-describedby="contact-hint"
    class="govuk-fieldset"
  >
    <legend class="govuk-fieldset__legend">
      <h1 class="govuk-heading-l">
        Will you be travelling to any of these
        countries?
      </h1>
    </legend>
    <span id="contact-hint" class="govuk-hint">
      Select all countries that apply
    </span>
    <div class="govuk-checkboxes">
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="france"
          name="contact"
          id="contact-checkbox-0"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
        />
        <label
          for="contact-checkbox-0"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          France
        </label>
      </div>
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="portugal"
          name="contact"
          id="contact-checkbox-1"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
        />
        <label
          for="contact-checkbox-1"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          Portugal
        </label>
      </div>
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="spain"
          name="contact"
          id="contact-checkbox-2"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
        />
        <label
          for="contact-checkbox-2"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          Spain
        </label>
      </div>
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__divider">or</div>
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="none"
          name="contact"
          id="contact-checkbox-4"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
        />
        <label
          for="contact-checkbox-4"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          No, I will not be travelling to any of these
          countries
        </label>
      </div>
    </div>
  </fieldset>
</div>
<Checkboxes
  label={
    <h1 className="govuk-heading-l">
      Will you be travelling to any of these
      countries?
    </h1>
  }
  name="contact"
  options={[
    {
      value: "france",
      label: "France",
    },
    {
      value: "portugal",
      label: "Portugal",
    },
    {
      value: "spain",
      label: "Spain",
    },
    "or",
    {
      value: "none",
      label:
        "No, I will not be travelling to any of these countries",
    },
  ]}
  hint="Select all countries that apply"
/>

If JavaScript is unavailable, and a user selects both the ‘none’ checkbox and another checkbox, display an error message.

Will you be travelling to any of these countries?

Error: Select countries you will be travelling to, or select “No, I will not be travelling to any of these countries”
or
<div
  id="contact"
  class="govuk-form-group govuk-form-group--error"
>
  <fieldset
    aria-describedby="contact-hint"
    class="govuk-fieldset"
  >
    <legend class="govuk-fieldset__legend">
      <h1 class="govuk-heading-l">
        Will you be travelling to any of these
        countries?
      </h1>
    </legend>
    <span
      id="contact-error"
      class="govuk-error-message"
    >
      <span class="govuk-visually-hidden">
        Error:
      </span>
      Select countries you will be travelling to, or
      select “No, I will not be travelling to any of
      these countries”
    </span>
    <div class="govuk-checkboxes">
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="france"
          name="contact"
          id="contact-checkbox-0"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
          checked=""
        />
        <label
          for="contact-checkbox-0"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          France
        </label>
      </div>
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="portugal"
          name="contact"
          id="contact-checkbox-1"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
        />
        <label
          for="contact-checkbox-1"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          Portugal
        </label>
      </div>
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="spain"
          name="contact"
          id="contact-checkbox-2"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
        />
        <label
          for="contact-checkbox-2"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          Spain
        </label>
      </div>
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__divider">or</div>
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="none"
          name="contact"
          id="contact-checkbox-4"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
          checked=""
        />
        <label
          for="contact-checkbox-4"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          No, I will not be travelling to any of these
          countries
        </label>
      </div>
    </div>
  </fieldset>
</div>
<Checkboxes
  error="Select countries you will be travelling to, or select “No, I will not be travelling to any of these countries”"
  label={
    <h1 className="govuk-heading-l">
      Will you be travelling to any of these
      countries?
    </h1>
  }
  name="contact"
  options={[
    {
      value: "france",
      label: "France",
      selected: true,
    },
    {
      value: "portugal",
      label: "Portugal",
    },
    {
      value: "spain",
      label: "Spain",
    },
    "or",
    {
      value: "none",
      label:
        "No, I will not be travelling to any of these countries",
      selected: true,
      exclusive: true,
    },
  ]}
/>

Conditionally revealing a related question

You can ask the user a related question when they select a particular checkbox, so they only see the question when it’s relevant to them.

This might make 2 related questions easier to answer by grouping them on the same page. For example, you could reveal a phone number input when the user selects the ‘Contact me by phone’ option.

How would you like to be contacted?

Select all options that are relevant to you.
<div id="contact" class="govuk-form-group">
  <fieldset
    aria-describedby="contact-hint"
    class="govuk-fieldset"
  >
    <legend class="govuk-fieldset__legend">
      <h1 class="govuk-heading-l">
        How would you like to be contacted?
      </h1>
    </legend>
    <span id="contact-hint" class="govuk-hint">
      Select all options that are relevant to you.
    </span>
    <div class="govuk-checkboxes">
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="email"
          name="contact"
          id="contact-checkbox-0"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
          data-aria-controls="conditional-contact-checkbox-0"
        />
        <label
          for="contact-checkbox-0"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          Email
        </label>
      </div>
      <div
        id="conditional-contact-checkbox-0"
        class="govuk-checkboxes__conditional govuk-checkboxes__conditional--hidden"
      >
        <div
          id="contact-by-email"
          class="govuk-form-group"
        >
          <label
            for="contact-by-email-input"
            class="govuk-label"
          >
            Email address
          </label>
          <input
            type="email"
            autocomplete="email"
            name="contact-by-email"
            spellcheck="false"
            id="contact-by-email-input"
            class="govuk-input"
          />
        </div>
      </div>
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="phone"
          name="contact"
          id="contact-checkbox-1"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
          data-aria-controls="conditional-contact-checkbox-1"
        />
        <label
          for="contact-checkbox-1"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          Phone
        </label>
      </div>
      <div
        id="conditional-contact-checkbox-1"
        class="govuk-checkboxes__conditional govuk-checkboxes__conditional--hidden"
      >
        <div
          id="contact-by-phone"
          class="govuk-form-group"
        >
          <label
            for="contact-by-phone-input"
            class="govuk-label"
          >
            Phone number
          </label>
          <input
            type="tel"
            autocomplete="tel"
            name="contact-by-phone"
            spellcheck="false"
            id="contact-by-phone-input"
            class="govuk-input"
          />
        </div>
      </div>
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="text message"
          name="contact"
          id="contact-checkbox-2"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
          data-aria-controls="conditional-contact-checkbox-2"
        />
        <label
          for="contact-checkbox-2"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          Text message
        </label>
      </div>
      <div
        id="conditional-contact-checkbox-2"
        class="govuk-checkboxes__conditional govuk-checkboxes__conditional--hidden"
      >
        <div
          id="contact-by-text"
          class="govuk-form-group"
        >
          <label
            for="contact-by-text-input"
            class="govuk-label"
          >
            Mobile phone number
          </label>
          <input
            type="tel"
            autocomplete="tel"
            name="contact-by-text"
            spellcheck="false"
            id="contact-by-text-input"
            class="govuk-input"
          />
        </div>
      </div>
    </div>
  </fieldset>
</div>
<Checkboxes
  label={
    <h1 className="govuk-heading-l">
      How would you like to be contacted?
    </h1>
  }
  name="contact"
  options={[
    {
      value: "email",
      label: "Email",
      conditional: (
        <TextInput
          autoComplete="email"
          className="govuk-!-width-one-third"
          id="contact-by-email"
          label="Email address"
          name="contact-by-email"
          spellCheck={false}
          type="email"
        />
      ),
    },
    {
      value: "phone",
      label: "Phone",
      conditional: (
        <TextInput
          autoComplete="tel"
          className="govuk-!-width-one-third"
          id="contact-by-phone"
          label="Phone number"
          name="contact-by-phone"
          spellCheck={false}
          type="tel"
        />
      ),
    },
    {
      value: "text message",
      label: "Text message",
      conditional: (
        <TextInput
          autoComplete="tel"
          className="govuk-!-width-one-third"
          id="contact-by-text"
          label="Mobile phone number"
          name="contact-by-text"
          spellCheck={false}
          type="tel"
        />
      ),
    },
  ]}
  hint="Select all options that are relevant to you."
/>

Keep it simple - if you need to add a lot of content, consider showing it on the next page in the process instead.

You should only conditionally reveal questions - do not show or hide anything that is not a question.

Known issues

Users are not always notified when a conditionally revealed question is shown or hidden. This fails WCAG 2.1 success criterion 4.1.2 Name, Role, Value.

However, we found that screen reader users did not have difficulty answering a conditionally revealed question - as long as it’s kept simple. It confused our test users when we conditionally revealed complicated questions to them.

We’ll keep looking for opportunities to learn more about how conditionally revealed questions should be used in services.

Smaller checkboxes

Use standard-sized checkboxes in nearly all cases. However, smaller versions work well on pages where it’s helpful to make them less visually prominent.

For example, on a page of search results, the primary user need is to see the results. Using smaller checkboxes lets users see and change search filters without distracting them from the main content.

Organisation

<div id="organisation" class="govuk-form-group">
  <fieldset
    aria-describedby="organisation-hint"
    class="govuk-fieldset"
  >
    <legend class="govuk-fieldset__legend">
      <h3>Organisation</h3>
    </legend>
    <div
      class="govuk-checkboxes govuk-checkboxes--small"
    >
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="hmrc"
          name="organisation"
          id="organisation-checkbox-0"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
        />
        <label
          for="organisation-checkbox-0"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          HM Revenue and Customs (HMRC)
        </label>
      </div>
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="employment-tribunal"
          name="organisation"
          id="organisation-checkbox-1"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
        />
        <label
          for="organisation-checkbox-1"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          Employment Tribunal
        </label>
      </div>
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="MoD"
          name="organisation"
          id="organisation-checkbox-2"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
        />
        <label
          for="organisation-checkbox-2"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          Ministry of Defence
        </label>
      </div>
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="DfT"
          name="organisation"
          id="organisation-checkbox-3"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
        />
        <label
          for="organisation-checkbox-3"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          Department for Transport
        </label>
      </div>
    </div>
  </fieldset>
</div>
<Checkboxes
  classModifiers="small"
  label={<h3>Organisation</h3>}
  name="organisation"
  options={[
    {
      value: "hmrc",
      label: "HM Revenue and Customs (HMRC)",
    },
    {
      value: "employment-tribunal",
      label: "Employment Tribunal",
    },
    {
      value: "MoD",
      label: "Ministry of Defence",
    },
    {
      value: "DfT",
      label: "Department for Transport",
    },
  ]}
/>

Small checkboxes can work well on information dense screens in services designed for repeat use, like caseworking systems.

In services like these, the risk that they will not be noticed is lower because users return to the screen multiple times.

Error messages

Error messages should be styled like this:

What is your nationality?

Select all that apply.Error: Select if you are British, Irish or a citizen of a different country
including English, Scottish, Welsh and Northern Irish
<div
  id="nationality"
  class="govuk-form-group govuk-form-group--error"
>
  <fieldset
    aria-describedby="nationality-hint"
    class="govuk-fieldset"
  >
    <legend class="govuk-fieldset__legend">
      <h1 class="govuk-heading-l">
        What is your nationality?
      </h1>
    </legend>
    <span id="nationality-hint" class="govuk-hint">
      Select all that apply.
    </span>
    <span
      id="nationality-error"
      class="govuk-error-message"
    >
      <span class="govuk-visually-hidden">
        Error:
      </span>
      Select if you are British, Irish or a citizen of
      a different country
    </span>
    <div class="govuk-checkboxes">
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="british"
          name="nationality"
          id="nationality-checkbox-0"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
        />
        <label
          for="nationality-checkbox-0"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          British
        </label>
        <span
          id="nationality-checkbox-0-hint"
          class="govuk-hint govuk-checkboxes__hint"
        >
          including English, Scottish, Welsh and
          Northern Irish
        </span>
      </div>
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="irish"
          name="nationality"
          id="nationality-checkbox-1"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
        />
        <label
          for="nationality-checkbox-1"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          Irish
        </label>
      </div>
      <div class="govuk-checkboxes__item">
        <input
          type="checkbox"
          value="other"
          name="nationality"
          id="nationality-checkbox-2"
          class="govuk-checkboxes__input"
        />
        <label
          for="nationality-checkbox-2"
          class="govuk-label govuk-checkboxes__label"
        >
          Citizen of another country
        </label>
      </div>
    </div>
  </fieldset>
</div>
<Checkboxes
  label={
    <h1 className="govuk-heading-l">
      What is your nationality?
    </h1>
  }
  name="nationality"
  options={[
    {
      value: "british",
      label: "British",
      hint: "including English, Scottish, Welsh and Northern Irish",
    },
    {
      value: "irish",
      label: "Irish",
    },
    {
      value: "other",
      label: "Citizen of another country",
    },
  ]}
  hint="Select all that apply."
  error="Select if you are British, Irish or a citizen of a different country "
/>

Make sure errors follow the guidance in error message and have specific error messages for specific error states.

If nothing is selected and the question has options in it

Say ‘Select if [whatever it is] ’.

For example, ‘Select if you are British, Irish or a citizen of a different country’.

If nothing is selected and the question does not have options in it

Say ‘Select [whatever it is] ’.

For example, ‘Select your nationality or nationalities’.

If users check both a ‘none’ checkbox and another checkbox

Say ‘Select [option label text] or select “ [none of the above label text] ”’

For example, ‘Select countries you will be travelling to, or select “No, I will not be travelling to any of these countries”’